Identification and molecular characterization of novel and divergent Hobi-like pestiviruses from naturally infected cattle in India.

Mishra N, Rajukumar K, Pateriya A, Kumar M, Dubey P, Behera SP, Verma A, Bhardwaj P, Kulkarni DD, Vijaykrishna D, Reddy ND. 2014. Vet Microbiol 174: 239-246.


HoBi-like pestiviruses have been sporadically reported from naturally infected cattle in South America, Asia and Europe. While the closely related bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 have been reported from cattle in India, the prevalence and diversity of HoBi-like viruses have not yet been studied. Here we report the genetic diversity and molecular characteristics of HoBi-like viruses, through systematic surveillance in cattle (n = 1049) from 21 dairy farms across India during 2012–2013. On the basis of real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing results, of the 20 pestivirus positive cattle, HoBi-like viruses were identified in 19 cattle from four farms in three states and BVDV-1b in one cattle. Phylogenetic analysis of 5′-UTR and Npro region identified the circulation of two lineages of HoBi-like viruses in India, that were distinct to those circulating globally, highlighting the independent evolution of at least three lineages of HoBi-like viruses globally. Antigenic differences were also evident between the two Indian lineages. In addition to revealing that HoBi-like virus may be more widespread in Indian cattle than previously reported, this study shows greater genetic divergence of HoBi-like viruses indicating a need for continued pestivirus surveillance in cattle.